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Radiosurgery utilizes externally generated radiation beams that are precisely focused to deliver high doses to a target area. Stereotactic radiosurgery, which provides a high dose to a target area with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue, has been examined for its effectiveness in reducing chronic pain in patients with cancer.


A radioisotope is a version of a chemical element that has the same number of protons characteristic of the chemical element but varies in terms of the number of neutrons in its atoms. Different isotopes of an element may have different radioactivities. A radioisotope is one that is radioactive. Radioisotopes are used for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Radioisotopes have been examined for their effectiveness in patients with cancer for pain control from bone metastases.     

Radiofrequency Ablation and Osteoplasty

Radiofrequency ablation is a procedure in which the electrical conduction system of tissue is destroyed using heat generated from high-frequency radio waves. Osteoplasty is the surgical repair, replacement, or grafting of bone tissue. The of combination ablation by needle and electrode insertion into bone lesions followed by an injection of bone cement was evaluated for its effect on refractory pain from bone metastases.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cells by damaging DNA. The use of external beam radiation therapy has been examined for its effectiveness in the management of chronic pain in patients with cancer. Most of its use has been for pain associated with bone metastases; however, radiotherapy is also being examined for effectiveness in pain control for patients with other types of cancers.

Vaginal Packs with Monsel's Solution

Monsel's solution, or basic ferric sulfate solution, is made from ferrous sulfate, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid, and is known as a styptic or hemostatic agent. Vaginal packing soaked in Monsel's solution has been used to reduce blood loss from surgical treatment of cervical neoplasms.

Use of Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorant

In the past, whether patients receiving radiation therapy should use deodorant was controversial. Use of metal-containing products has raised questions regarding skin surface doses of the metal that might interfere with external beam radiation delivery. Aluminum-based compounds are generally used as the active ingredient in antiperspirants.

Use of Live Attenuated Vaccines

Live attenuated vaccines contain a form of the living organism that has been weakened so it should not cause disease. There is the possibility that the living microbe in the vaccine could become virulent and cause disease. Examples of live attenuated vaccines are intransal influenza vaccine, varicella vaccine, oral polio vaccine, and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. The potential of attenuated microbes to become virulent is of concern related to prevention of infection among patients with cancer, particularly those who are significantly immunocompromised.

Urokinase IV Catheter Flush

One of the potential mechanisms for development of catheter-related infections is related to the creation of a biofilm in catheter lumens. Urokinase may disrupt biofilms due to its fibinolytic activity. The addition of urokinase to catheter flushing with or without heparin has been examined for its effectiveness in reducing catheter-related infections in patients with cancer.

Urea-Based Topical Treatment

Urea-containing lotion and creams are emollients for topical use and have keratolytic properties.  Urea hydrates and breaks down the intercellular matrix, which results in mild debridement and proportion of normal healing of surface lesions. Urea lotion and urea-based products were evaluated in patients with cancer for prevention and management of radiodermatitis and skin effects.

Urea-Based Moisturizer for Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Nail Toxicity

Urea-containing lotion and creams are emollients for topical use and have keratolytic properties. Urea hydrates as well as breaks down the intercellular matrix which results in mild debridement and proportion of normal healing of surface lesions. Urea-based moisturizer was evaluated for its effect on nail toxicities in patients receiving kinase inhibitors. As mechanisms of toxicity with various antitumor agents differ, effects may also differ accordingly.

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