Purpose/Objectives: To determine the most effective methods of increasing mammography adherence while also considering ease of intervention delivery in evolving healthcare systems.
Setting: Women from a health maintenance organization and a large general medicine practice.
Sample: Women 50-85 years of age who had not had breast cancer and did not have a mammogram within the last 15 months.
Methods: Once consent and baseline information were obtained, women were randomized to receive in-person, telephone, or no mammography counseling.
Main Research Variables: Mammography adherence, perception of susceptibility to breast cancer, and benefits, barriers to, and knowledge of mammography.
Findings: Compared to standard care, telephone counseling was more than twice as effective at increasing mammography adherence, whereas in-person counseling resulted in almost three times the mammography adherence postintervention. Both telephone and in-person counseling are successful in changing perceived susceptibility, knowledge, barriers, and benefits.
Conclusion: Both telephone and in-person counseling interventions were successful in changing beliefs, which, in turn, increased mammography adherence.
Implications for Nursing Practice: Interventions based on altering beliefs are effective for increasing mammography adherence.