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Pre- and Postintervention Differences in Acculturation, Knowledge, Beliefs, and Stages of Readiness for Mammograms Among Korean American Women

Jin Hee Kim

Usha Menon

Korean American, mammography
ONF 2009, 36(2), E80-E92. DOI: 10.1188/09.ONF.E80-E92

Purpose/Objectives: To assess differences in acculturation, knowledge, beliefs, and stages of readiness for mammograms from pre- to postintervention among Korean American women aged 40 years or older.

Design: Prospective, repeated measures, quasi-experimental.

Setting: A Korean American senior center in the midwestern United States.

Sample: 300 Korean American women aged 40 years or older with no breast cancer diagnoses and who were non-adherent with mammography screening.

Methods: Following completion of the preintervention questionnaire, the women attended a 45-minute interactive breast cancer early screening education session (GO EARLY) organized according to stages of readiness for mammography use (i.e., not thinking about having one, thinking about having one, and had one in the past). Postintervention data were collected six weeks following the educational session.

Main Research Variables: Acculturation, knowledge, beliefs (perceived risk, pros, cons, fear, self-efficacy, modesty, fatalism), and stages of readiness for mammography use.

Findings: At preintervention stages of readiness, women thinking about having a mammogram (contemplators) had significantly lower knowledge scores and higher cons to mammography use than women who had mammograms in the past (relapsers). Women not thinking about having a mammogram (precontemplators) had significantly lower self-efficacy for having a mammogram and higher cons than relapsers. The GO EARLY session was most effective in increasing knowledge, decreasing perceived cons, and increasing perceived self-efficacy. No statistically significant intervention effect was noted on upward shift in stage of readiness for mammography use postintervention.

Conclusions: The GO EARLY intervention, the first study to assess stages of readiness for mammography use among Korean American women, was feasible and culturally sensitive and can be replicated in various Korean American communities.

Implications for Nursing: Culturally appropriate educational programs can serve to change women's perceptions and knowledge, and such changes may lead to changes in health behavior.

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