Purpose/Objectives: To identify anticipatory, acute, and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) frequency and coping strategies used among pediatric patients with cancer.
Design: Prospective, cohort design.
Setting: A pediatric teaching hospital in the southern United States.
Sample: A convenience sample of 40 children aged 7-12 years scheduled to receive either moderately emetic chemotherapy or highly emetic chemotherapy for cancer treatment.
Methods: Children completed the Adapted Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting for Pediatrics and the Kidcope-Younger Version.
Main Research Variables: CINV and coping strategies.
Findings: CINV occurred during the anticipatory, acute, and delayed times, with the highest frequency occurring during the delayed time. The most frequently used coping strategies were distraction and wishful thinking, whereas the most effective strategies were social support and distraction. No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency or efficacy of coping strategies over time.
Conclusions: CINV occurs throughout chemotherapy treatment. The most efficacious coping strategies included active and passive coping, with active coping strategies being more effective.
Implications for Nursing: Nurses should recognize that CINV occurs at all points of chemotherapy treatment. Nurses can assist children in developing active coping strategies to manage their CINV.
Aldridge, A. A., & Roesch, S. C. (2007). Coping and adjustment in children with cancer: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 115-129. doi:10.1007/s10865-006-9087-y
Baggott, C., Dodd, M., Kennedy, C., Marina, N., Matthay, K., Cooper, B., & Miaskowski, C. (2010). Changes in children's reports of symptom occurrence and severity during a course of myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 27, 307-315. doi:10.1177/1043454210377619
Baker, P. D., & Ellett, M. L. (2007). Measuring nausea and vomiting in adolescents: A feasibility study. Gastroenterology Nursing, 30, 18-28. doi:10.1097/00001610-200701000-00002
Dewan, P., Singhal, S., & Harit, D. (2010). Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Indian Pediatrics, 47, 149-155. doi:10.1007/s13312-010-0023-4
Dodd, M., Janson, S., Facione, N., Faucett, J., Froelicher, E., Humphreys, J., … Taylor, D. (2001). Advancing the science of symptom management. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33, 668-676.
Engvall, G., Mattsson, E., von Essen, L., & Hedstrom, M. (2011). Findings on how adolescents cope with cancer—A matter of methodology? Psycho-Oncology, 20, 1053-1060. doi:10.1002/pon.1809
Hockenberry, M. J., Hooke, M. C., Gregurich, M., McCarthy, K., Sambuco, G., & Krull, K. (2010). Symptom clusters in children and adolescents receiving cisplatin, doxorubicin, or ifosfamide [Online exclusive]. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37, E16-E27. doi:10.1188/10.ONF.E16-E27
Holdsworth, M., Raish, D., & Frost, J. (2006). Acute and delayed nausea and emesis control in pediatric oncology patients. Cancer, 106, 931-940. doi:10.1002/cncr.21631
Kyngas, H., Mikkonen, R., Nousiainen, E., Rytilahti, M., Seppanen, P., Vaattovaara, R., & Jamsa, T. (2001). Coping with the onset of cancer: Coping strategies and resources of young people with cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, 10, 6-11. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2354.2001.00243.x
Lemeshow, S., Hosmer, D., Klar, J., & Lwanga, S. (1993). Adequacy of sample size in health studies. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Lo, L., & Hayman, L. (1999). Parents associated with children in measuring acute and delayed nausea and vomiting. Nursing Health Science, 1, 155-161. doi:10.1046/j.1442-2018.1999.00020.x
Miller, M., & Kearney, N. (2004). Chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting—Past reflections, present practice, and future management. European Journal of Cancer Care, 13, 71-81.
Ouwerkerk, J. (1994). Cancer therapy-induced emesis: The nurse's perspective. European Journal of Cancer Care, 3, 18-25.
Rhodes, V., Watson, P., & Johnson, M. (1984). Development of reliable and valid measures of nausea and vomiting. Cancer Nursing, 7, 33-41. doi:10.1097/00002820-198402000-00003
Schwartzberg, L. (2007). Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: Clinician and patient perspectives. Journal of Supportive Oncology, 5(2, Suppl. 1), 5-12.
Spirito, A., Stark, L., & Williams, C. (1988). Development of a brief coping checklist for use with pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 13, 555-574. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/13.4.555
Tyc, V., Mulhern, R., & Bieberich, A. (1997). Anticipatory nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer patients: An analysis of conditioning and coping variables. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 18, 27-33. doi:10.1097/00004703-199702000-00006
Tyc, V., Mulhern, R., Jayawardene, D., & Fairclough, D. (1995). Chemo-therapy-induced nausea and emesis in pediatric cancer patients: An analysis of coping strategies. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 10, 338-347. doi:10.1016/0885-3924(95)00019-U
Williams, P., Schmideskamp, J., Ridder, E., & Williams, A. (2006). Symptom monitoring and dependent care during cancer treatment in children: Pilot study. Cancer Nursing, 29, 188-197.
Woodgate, R. L., & Degner, L. F. (2003). Expectations and beliefs about children's cancer symptoms: Perspectives of children with cancer and their families. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30, 479-491.