Symptom Management

Researchers are looking at new ways to deliver some antiemetics for managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron is available orally and now as a transdermal patch.
Estimates suggest that more than 70% of patients receiving chemotherapy will experience at least some level of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) (Rogers & Blackburn, 2010).
The oral mucosa is made up of epithelial cells that regenerate every 7–14 days, making them easily damaged by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
The incidence of oral mucositis varies across populations of patients with cancer and is related to individual patient factors and the type of therapy being received.
Sleep-wake disturbances are frequently looked at as “symptom clusters”—groups of interrelated symptoms that can occur simultaneously and interact with each other to cause additional symptoms or worsen existing ones.
Sleep that is of good quality and in appropriate amounts is essential to good health and well-being. It therefore follows that insufficient or interrupted sleep may lead to negative effects on health.
Oral mucositis manifests as inflammation and ulceration involving the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and throat. Potential signs and symptoms of oral mucositis include the following.
Specific, well-designed goals of an exercise program should drive the interventions, because specific interventions will likely produce specific outcomes. The most common types of exercise are aerobic, strength training, and flexibility regimens.
Specific Effects of Aerobic Exercise Studies of aerobic exercise regimens ranging from supervised treadmill tests to stationary bike programs three times a week for 10–12 weeks showed that participants experienced (Visovsky & Dvorak, 2005)
Although more than one definition can be found, quality of life (QOL) is often defined as a state of well-being in which an individual can perform daily activities, combined with satisfaction with the levels of functioning and control of the disease and/or its symptoms (Hacker, 2009).
Side effects from cancer treatment can greatly affect the quality of life for many patients. Among the many troubling side effects, patients often describe loss of functional capacity and fatigue as some of the most debilitating (Hanna, Avila, Meteer, Nicholas, & Kaminsky, 2008).
Two brief ONS slideshows review the basics of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The first provides a definition and general overview of CINV, including the five types of CINV.
View this brief slideshow on calculating the absolute neutrophil count, with directions and examples provided.

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