de Rezende, L.F., Franco, R.L., de Rezende, M.F., Beletti, P.O., Morais, S.S., & Gurgel, M.S. (2006). Two exercise schemes in postoperative breast cancer: Comparison of effects on shoulder movement and lymphatic disturbance. Tumori, 92(1), 55–61.
The study compared the effects on shoulder movement and lymphatic disturbance of two exercise schemes after surgery in patients with breast cancer. Subjects were randomly assigned to two exercise groups based on kinesiotherapy: directed group guided by a physiotherapist with a regimen of 19 exercises (exercises were performed 10 times with 60-second intervals between exercises) and free group, which had no defined sequence or number of repetitions. Both groups began with three exercises beginning on the first day after surgery. Exercises were performed in outpatient physiotherapy department. The study was reviewed by the Research Commission and Ethics Committee of the faculty of medical sciences. Patients participated in a 40-minute session three times weekly for a period of 42 days.
Patients were recruited from State University of Campinas, Brazil.
No difference in groups was found in terms of individual characteristics and clinical-surgical characteristics. Incidence of infection was similar in both groups. Lymphatic disturbance showed no statistical difference between groups. Incidence of seroma was not statistically different between groups. The directed exercise group had more recovery of range of motion in shoulder in flexion, abduction, and external rotation compared with the free group. Patients who received directed exercises achieved better function and return to premorbid function than those patients who did free exercise.