Kwekkeboom, K.L. (2003). Music versus distraction for procedural pain and anxiety in patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30, 433–440.doi: 10.1188/03.ONF.433-440
This intervention was music versus simple distraction and control (treatment as usual).
The study reported on a sample of 58 patients with cancer having painful, cancer-related medical procedures.
A randomized controlled trial design was used.
There were no significant differences in post-procedure anxiety (no p values reported), pain, or perceived control across conditions.