Nicolatou-Galitis, O., Dardoufas, K., Markoulatos, P., Sotiropoulou-Lontou, A., Kyprianou, K., Kolitsi, G., … Velegraki, A. (2001). Oral pseudomembranous candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-1 infection, and oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, 30, 471–480.doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0714.2001.030008471.x
Patients were given a mouthwash of 400 mcg granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) dissolved in 1 mL sterile water, added to 200 mL drinking water, to treat grade II–IV mucositis. Patients were instructed to use the mouthwash once a day after the end of the second week of therapy. They were instructed to use as a mouthwash and then swallow in fragments within one hour.
Physicians used the following grading system.
Patients used the following grading system.
The authors stated that because 20 out of 46 patients with initial mucositis of grade II and III completed RT with grade I mucositis, the mouthwash was beneficial. However, additional research is needed.