Karagozoglu, S., Tekyasar, F., & Yilmaz, F.A. (2013). Effects of music therapy and guided visual imagery on chemotherapy-induced anxiety and nausea-vomiting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22, 39–50.doi: 10.1111/jocn.12030
To examine effects of music and visual imagery on anxiety and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving chemotherapy
Patients were assigned to the control group during their second cycle of chemotherapy and to the experimental condition during the third cycle of chemotherapy. Anxiety and CINV were measured before and after chemotherapy administration. Nature paintings were used for visual imagery, and instrumental Turkish music was selected for each image. Patients selected the image that was most appealing to them and were told to imagine being in the location of the painting. Patients were given the related music CD to listen to during chemotherapy with headphones.
The study was conducted at a single site, outpatient setting in Turkey.
Patients were undergoing active antitumor treatment.
A pre- and post-test repeated measures, single-group design was used.
Anxiety declined from prechemotherapy to postchemotherapy administration in both conditions. Both pre- and postchemotherapy state anxiety levels were lower during the intervention course of treatment. CINV declined over time for both pre- and postchemotherapy administration. Both pre- and postchemotherapy CINV levels were significantly lower during the intervention condition.
This study does not provide any clear conclusions about the effects of music and visual imagery.
Findings are inconclusive regarding the efficacy of music and visual imagery for anxiety and CINV during chemotherapy administration because of numerous study design and analysis limitations.