O’Grady, N.P., Alexander, M., Burns, L.A., Dellinger, E.P., Garland, J., Heard, S.O., . . . Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). (2011). Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/guidelines/bsi-guidelines-2011.pdf
To provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections for healthcare personnel who insert and care for intravascular catheters and for those responsible for surveillance and infection control in hospital, outpatient, and home health settings. Patients addressed in the guidelines were adult and pediatric patients with intravascular catheters.
The resource is comprised of evidence-based guidelines. For the development process, evidence was categorized as category 1A to category 2 based on strength of recommendation and support from clinical or epidemiological studies.
The results were not summarized.
The guidelines provided extensive recommendations regarding the education and training of staff; selection of catheters and sites, including avoidance of the femoral vein for central venous access and use of the central venous catheter with the minimum number of ports needed; hand hygiene; use of maximal sterile barrier precautions for insertion; skin preparation with alcohol, iodine, or chlorhexidine; use of standard catheter site dressing regimens; specific aspects of care for umbilical and dialysis catheters; and use of piggybacks, stopcocks, and catheter flushing. Guideline recommendations include a bundling of multiple recommendations: antimicrobial-impregnated catheters and cuffs are recommended in patients with long-term use if the organizational central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) rate is not decreasing despite the implementation of comprehensive strategies for improvement. Lower-level (category II) recommendations include the use of prophylactic antimicrobial lock solutions in patients with long-term catheters who have a history of CLABSIs despite optimal aseptic technique as well as daily cleansing of patients in the intensive care unit with 2% chlorhexidine-impregnated washcloths.