Dyspnea is a subjective experience of difficult breathing or sensation of breathlessness that can occur rapidly and lead to a feeling of impending doom. Dyspnea can be common in patients with primary or metastatic lung or pleural involvement; however, patients with cancer without direct involvement of these areas also report it. Prevalence of dyspnea has been reported to be highest in patients with lung, breast, and esophageal cancer. Dyspnea has been estimated to occur in 15%–55% of patients at the time of cancer diagnosis and as many as 70% of patients with terminal cancer. Dyspnea in patients with cancer may be caused by the cancer directly or cancer treatment, or it may be unrelated to the cancer or associated with other underlying medical conditions.
Immune-Related Adverse Events With Immunotherapy
Although not common, pneumonitis has been reported in patients receiving immunotherapies. Symptoms such as dyspnea or cough may indicate pneumonitis. Prompt diagnosis with radiographic imaging and interventions is essential. Usual treatment is the administration of systemic corticosteroids (Linardou & Gogas, 2016).
This topic was updated on November 2, 2016. Learn more about these changes.
Linardou, H., & Gogas, H. (2016). Toxicity management of immunotherapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. Annals of Translational Medicine, 4, 272. doi:10.21037/atm2016.07.10
Recommended for Practice
Likely to Be Effective
Effectiveness Not Established
- Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure
- Extended and Sustained Release Opioids
- Fan/Increasing Airflow
- Fentanyl (Subcutaneous)
- High Flow Oxygen
- Inspiratory Muscle Training
- Music/Music Therapy
- Nebulized Furosemide
- Nebulized Lidocaine
- Nebulized Opioids
- Palliative Care
- Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)
- Transmucosal Fentanyl