Background: Elucidation of key biomarkers, as indicators and drivers of the pathologic processes in cutaneous melanoma (CM), has led to the development of effective targeted therapies.
Objectives: This article provides an overview of key concepts in advanced CM, particularly the essential role of biomarkers and biomarker testing to guide treatment.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in CINAHL® and PubMed® using the following search terms: melanoma, biomarkers, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.
Findings: Targeted BRAF/MEK inhibitors, as well as immune checkpoint inhibitors, have vastly improved long-term outcomes in advanced CM. Deepening understanding of the biologic and genomic features of CM and their interactions with the host immune system is critical for predicting treatment and survival outcomes and developing new therapies.