Levofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. It is used for the treatment of pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate, and skin infections.
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a semi-conductor light source, releasing energy in the form of photons. Exposure to LED light was studied in patients with cancer for its effect on the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis.
Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that inhibits gastric acid production in the stomach. The drug is available over-the-counter in the United States, and its uses include the prevention and treatment of ulcers in the stomach and duodenum; the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); and the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections in which it is used as an adjunctive therapy. The most common side effects are diarrhea and skin rashes or itching.
Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant that inhibits the function of neuronal sodium channels, decreasing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters. Lamotrigine has been evaluated for the management of peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. It is available as a tablet, extended release tablet, chewable tablet, and an orally dissolving tablet.
Lactulose, an osmotic laxative, contains poorly absorbed ions or molecules that create a local osmotic gradient within the intestinal lumen. Fluid and electrolytes are drawn osmotically from the surrounding tissue into the colon, which creates pressure-stimulating peristalsis. Adverse effects of lactulose include electrolyte abnormalities, diarrhea, abdominal bloating, flatulence, and colic.
Oral lozenges containing Lactobacillus brevi were studied for effects to reduce oral mucositis in patients with cancer. This particular probiotic has anti-inflammatory properties.
KRN 5500 is a spicamycin derivative that has appeared to reduce nerve-injury-induced neuropathic pain in animal models. This substance was examined for its effect on pain in patients with cancer who had refractory neuropathic pain.
Konjac glucomannan is produced from the root of the konjac plant, which is native to tropical areas in Asia. It is high in soluble fiber. This dietary supplement has been studied in patients with cancer for the prevention and management of constipation.
Kinesio tape is a type of bandage for taping that allows longitudinal stretch, so is somewhat elastic, and is composed of cotton fibers and acrylic heat sensitive glue. Kinesio tape is waterproof and is worn for 1-3 days without removal. Kinesio tape has been used for sports application and was evaluated as an alternative to standard compression bandaging for lymphedema in patients with cancer.
Ketamine is a fast-acting, dissociative anesthetic that works by stopping external stimulation from being delivered to the brain from the nervous system. As such, it can give rise to a hallucinogenic state and distort perception. Ketamine is a schedule III drug in the United States. Ketamine is used as a general anesthetic and in pain management.