Purpose/Objectives: To describe current survivorship care from the perspectives of oncology nurses.
Setting: E-mail invitation to Web-based survey.
Sample: 399 Oncology Nursing Society members providing care for patients initially treated more than one year previously.
Methods: An online survey was used to evaluate current aspects of survivorship care.
Main Research Variables: Practice settings, services provided, and barriers to delivering survivorship care.
Findings: Few nurses (27%) worked in settings with a formal survivorship program. Several program components were provided significantly more often in outpatient settings, pediatric facilities, and workplaces with a formal survivorship program. At the transition from acute to follow-up care, the survivorship nursing care provided most often was scheduling for ongoing monitoring (71%) and the least likely was assistance for employment or legal issues (16%). The greatest barriers to providing survivorship care were lack of time and funding (46%). Among nurses new to oncology (fewer than five years), 49% indicated they lacked sufficient knowledge compared to 36% of nurses with more than five years of oncology experience.
Conclusions: Findings describe current aspects of survivorship care across practice settings. Nurses reported that the greatest barriers are lack of time, funding, and lack of knowledge about survivorship issues.
Implications for Nursing: A need exists for education to enhance knowledge and skills of nurses who will provide survivorship care. Research is warranted to develop empirically supported guidelines and care-delivery models that address the barriers to providing survivorship services.
Alexander, G., Kogan, M. D., & Nabukera, S. (2002). Racial differences in prenatal care in the United States: Are disparities decreasing? American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1970-1975.
Altekruse, S. F., Kosary, C. L., Krapcho, M., Neyman, N., Aminou, R., Waldron, W., … Edwards, B. K. (Eds). (2010). SEER cancer statistics review, 1975-2007. Retrieved from http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2007
Bowers, D. C., Adhikari, S., El-Khashab, Y. M., Gargan, L., & Oeffinger, K. C. (2009). Survey of long-term follow-up programs in the United States for survivors of childhood brain tumors. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 53, 1295-1301. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22240
Earle, C. C. (2007). Long-term care planning for cancer survivors: A health services research agenda. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 1, 64-74. doi: 10.1007/s11764-006-0003-9
Eiser, C., Absolom, K., Greenfield, D., Snowden, J., Coleman, R., Hancock, B., & Davies, H. (2007). Follow-up care for young adult survivors of cancer: Lessons from pediatrics. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 1, 75-86. doi: 10.1007/s11764-0006-1
Ferrell, B. R., Virani, R., Smith, S., & Juarez, G. (2003). The role of oncology nursing to ensure quality care for cancer survivors: A report commissioned by the National Cancer Policy Board and Institute of Medicine [Online exclusive]. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30, E1-E11. doi: 10.1188/03.ONF.E1-E11
Feuerstein, M., & Harrington, C. B. (2006). Recommendations for the U. S. national occupational research agenda: Research on cancer survivorship, musculoskeletal disorders, and work disability. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 16, 1-5. doi: 10.1007/s10926-005-9004-1
Ganz, P. A. (2009). Survivorship: Adult cancer patients. Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice, 36, 721-741. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2009.08.001
Ganz, P. A., & Hahn, E. E. (2008). Implementing a survivorship care plan for patients with breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 759-767. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.14.2851
Gilbert, S. M., Miller, D. C., Hollenbeck, B. K., Montie, J. E., & Wei, J. T. (2008). Cancer survivorship: Challenges and changing paradigms. Journal of Urology, 179, 431-438. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.09.029
Grant, M., Economou, D., Ferrell, B., & Bhatia, S. (2007). Preparing professional staff to care for cancer survivors. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 1, 98-106.
Hewitt, M., Bamundo, A., Day, R., & Harvey, C. (2007). Perspectives on post-treatment cancer care: Research with survivors, nurses, and physicians. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 2270-2273. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2006.10.0826
Hewitt, M., Greenfield, S., & Stovall, E. (2006). From cancer patient to cancer survivor—Lost in transition. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Houldin, A., Curtiss, C. P., & Haylock, P. J. (2006). Executive summary: The state of the science on nursing approaches to managing late and long-term sequelae of cancer and cancer treatment. American Journal of Nursing, 106, 54-59.
Jacobs, L. A., Palmer, S. C., Schwartz, L. A., DeMichele, A., Mao, J. J., Carver, J., … Meadows, A. T. (2009). Adult cancer survivorship: Evolution, research, and planning care. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 59, 391-410. doi: 10.3322/caac.20040
Kolb, M. (2009). Life after pediatric cancer: Easing the transition to the adult primary care provider [Online exclusive]. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 13, E30-E40. doi: 10.1188/09.CJON.E30-E40
Landier, W. (2009). Survivorship care: Essential components and models of delivery. Oncology (Williston Park), 23(4, Suppl.), 46-53.
Landier, W., Wallace, W. H. B., & Hudson, M. M. (2006). Long-term follow-up of pediatric cancer survivors: Education, surveillance, and screening. Pediatric Blood Cancer, 46, 149-158.
Oeffinger, K. C., & McCabe, M. S. (2006). Models for delivering survivorship care. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 5117-5124.
Ruccione, K. (2009). The legacy of pediatric oncology nursing in advancing survivorship research and clinical care. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 26, 255-265. doi: 10.1177/1043454209343179
Szilagyi, P. G., Dick, A. W., Klein, J. D., Shone, L. P., Zwanziger, J., Bajorska, A., & Yoos, H. L. (2006). Improved asthma care after enrollment in the State Children's Health Insurance Program in New York. Pediatrics, 117, 486-496. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0340