At the time of diagnosis, 20%–75% of patients with cancer report having pain. Chronic pain persists three months or more. The most frequent cause of cancer-related chronic pain is bone metastasis. Chronic pain may also be a result of cancer treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Research regarding the use of common opioid preparations for pain is not included in this evidence, because opioids are clearly known to be effective and meet criteria of Recommended for Practice because of effectiveness. Only new formulations or delivery methods are included for evidence categorization.
ONS staff researchers and clinical specialists have exhaustively assessed evidenced-based research from comprehensive sources to provide you our best recommendations on Symptom Interventions for your patients.