Patients with cancer can experience cognitive impairment and often have referred to such problems as "chemo-brain" or "chemo fog," although patients who have not received chemotherapy also have reported this experience. Cognitive impairment can continue for a long time after completion of treatment.
Among adults, cognitive impairment has been reported in up to 80% of patients with brain tumors, 70%–80% of patients with lung cancer, and 40% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. It has also been reported in up to 75% of patients with breast cancer and in patients treated with bone marrow transplantation after high-dose chemotherapy. Cognitive impairment can continue for a long time after completion of treatment. Individuals treated for childhood cancers may have long-term changes in cognitive function.
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