Dyspnea is a subjective experience of difficult breathing or sensation of breathlessness that can occur rapidly and lead to a feeling of impending doom. Dyspnea can be common in patients with primary or metastatic lung or pleural involvement; however, patients with cancer without direct involvement of these areas also report it. Prevalence of dyspnea has been reported to be highest in patients with lung, breast, and esophageal cancer. Dyspnea has been estimated to occur in 15%–55% of patients at the time of cancer diagnosis and as many as 70% of patients with terminal cancer. It is important for healthcare professionals to assess and treat any underlying causes of dyspnea, if known.
Although not common, pneumonitis has been reported in patients receiving immunotherapies. Symptoms such as dyspnea or cough may indicate pneumonitis. Prompt diagnosis with radiographic imaging and interventions is essential.
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