Problem Identification: Dyspnea is a common and distressing symptom for patients with cancer. Although the risk factors for dyspnea in patients with cancer are likely to be multifactorial, a comprehensive description of these risk factors and associated mechanisms is not available in the extant literature.
Literature Search: A search of all relevant databases, including Cochrane Library, PubMed®, Embase®, Web of Science, and CINAHL®, was done from January 2009 to May 2022. Case-control and cohort studies that had either a cross-sectional or longitudinal design, as well as randomized controlled trials, were included in the review. Peer-reviewed, full-text articles in English were included. Nineteen studies reported on risk factors for dyspnea.
Data Evaluation: The methodologic quality of each study was examined using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
Synthesis: A number of factors can influence the occurrence and severity of dyspnea. Using the Mismatch Theory of Dyspnea as the central core of this Multifactorial Model of Dyspnea in Patients With Cancer, the factors included in this conceptual model are person, clinical, and cancer-related factors, as well as respiratory muscle weakness, co-occurring symptoms, and stress.
Implications for Practice: The Multifactorial Model of Dyspnea in Patients With Cancer can be used by clinicians to evaluate for multiple factors that contribute to dyspnea and to develop individualized and multilevel interventions for patients experiencing this symptom.