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Domains of Structured Oral Anticancer Medication Programs: A Scoping Review

Kapeena Sivakumaran

Pamela K. Ginex

Haya Waseem

Sarah M. Belcher

Sarah Lagler-Clark

Kristine B. LeFebvre

Nicole Palmer

Tejanth Pasumarthi

Rebecca L. Morgan

oral anticancer medications, oncology care, cancer nursing, medication adherence, scoping review

Problem Identification: An interprofessional approach is necessary to support the multifactorial process of patient adherence to oral anticancer medications (OAMs). This scoping review aims to identify structured OAM programs in published literature, identify components within studies, and propose a framework for institutions developing or maintaining OAM programs.

Literature Search: Embase®, PubMed®, and CINAHL® databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and April 2021.

Data Evaluation: Two reviewers screened studies and extracted data. Characteristics and specific domains of the OAM programs were captured. Key components of the programs were identified, and a framework was created to guide program development.

Synthesis: Components identified among the 21 studies were education; counseling; follow-up; dedicated clinician contact; adverse event and toxicity monitoring; adherence monitoring; drug procurement, delivery, and supply; patient- and system-level cost reduction; information technology; and risk assessment.

Implications for Research: Based on the findings, a framework for building and evaluating OAM adherence programs is proposed. Future studies should evaluate the reliability and validity of this framework because further testing may lead to the development of additional components.

Supplementary material can be found at

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